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Christina Leung Locker

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Christina Leung


Course Synopsis

 Ms. C. Leung

Abraham Lincoln High School
U.S. History and Modern World
Room 321: 415-759-2700 x3321
Course Highlights:
Subject content is aligned with the State History/Social Science Framework and Common Core Standards.
Prepare students to be caring and active participating citizens
Develop students’ critical thinking skills through group activities (e.g., debate, research report, history play, model making) and various assignments (e.g., self-reflective journal writing, current event assignment.) Also emphasize ways of learning.
Classroom Expectations:
Students should follow school and class regulations (e.g., be respectful; no chewing gums/eating/drinking—except water; one person talks at a time; bring proper materials; leave seat/room with teacher’s permission; and maintain a tidy and clean classroom.)
Students should try their best to develop potentials and to attain an excellent grade.
Attendance Policy:
Frequent unexcused absence and tardiness, and/or misbehaviors will lead to a poor citizenship grade, and also will affect participation score.
Assessment and Grading Policy:
The sum of the following six items will be the final grade for a report card.
The sum of three report card scores in each semester will be a semester grade.
l)   Classroom participation:    +50 pt.
Students should actively participate in every classroom activity (e.g., group discussion, oral presentation, simulation game, role-playing) and should follow teacher's directives to get a high or full score.
Students should always be on time, do not cut class, and pay full attention to instruction.
Any uncooperative and improper  behavior will disrupt class activity and is counterproductive to participation.
2) Group-project:
One in every report grading period:    20 pt.
Emphasize team work and cooperation spirit. Usually the whole group receives the same grade.
3) Homework/class-work:
Each assignment completed and turned in on time:       +l pt
Students should discuss with the teacher when having difficulty to turn in any assignment on time.
Students should make up any late assignments for reference purpose, particularly if they are in the borderline case of a  failing grade.
Additional extra credit may give to a well-done assignment:       +1/2 pt.
Must keep every piece of assignment chronologically in file.
Must hand in all assignments once every two weeks for recording scores.
Should make up any assignment missed due to an absence within 3 days after returning to class.
4) Quizzes:      (Around 30 to 70 pt.)
A short Monday quiz (e.g., fill in the blanks, multiple-choices, etc.)  +l0 to 15 pt.
If students know in advance that they will be absent, they can take the quiz before the day of quiz.
If a student misses a Monday quiz, he/she must come on Friday of that week during lunch to do a make-up quiz. The format and questions of the make-up quiz will not be exactly the same as regular quizzes.
5) Test:        +50 to l00 pt.                                                                                             
A test is usually given towards the end of each grading period. It may consist of multiple-choice questions and essay questions.
Students can take the test in advance if they will be absent on that day.
A make-up test will be arranged if the absentee has a doctor's note and makes request on the very first day when he/she is back to school. If a doctor’s note is not available, please ask parents to talk to the teacher.  The make-up test may not be exactly the same as  the test.
6) Extra credit:
Extra credit is to encourage and help students to get a better grade. It may be awarded in the following situations: assignment well done; class-duties; hard effort in learning; approved community activities, and additional work, etc.
Students are welcome to hand in any extra credit work as much as they want before the test.
All points for that particular assignment will be canceled.
Stealing assignment papers from fellow-students, using a fake teacher’s stamp for assignments, copying assignments from friends, or any similar misbehavior may lead to a bad/ failing grade for the whole report card.   
Conversion of point system into letter grades:
                                                                  90%-l00% A
                                                                  80%-89% B
                                                                  70%-79% C
                                                                  60%-69% D
                                                                  Below 60% F
Homework Policy:
This is to reinforce what students have learnt and to stimulate students’ interest for further study. Students must keep all assignments for every report period for recording and checking purposes. Homework and/or class-work are usually given daily.
Other Pertinent Policy:
Students themselves keep a “Student Record” for every grading period to record points attained and assignments done.
Students must bring to class every day.  Parents/guardians should check this “Student Record” frequently to find out how well their children are doing, and to urge them to do extra credit work.
Text book: SFUSD adopted text-books:
       U.S. History: The American Vision, Modern Times
       Modern World: The World History: Patterns of Interaction             

Modern World Standards


Grade 10 Standards
World History and Geography: The Modern World

Students in grade ten study major turning points that shaped the modern world, from the late eighteenth century through the present, including the cause and course of the two world wars. They trace the rise of democratic ideas and develop an understanding of the historical roots of current world issues, especially as they pertain to international relations. They extrapolate from the American experience that democratic ideals are often achieved at a high price, remain vulnerable and are not practiced everywhere in the world. Students develop an understanding of current world issues and relate them to their historical, geographic, political, economic, and cultural contexts. Students consider multiple accounts of events in order to understand international relations from a variety of perspectives.


Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.


Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual.


Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics.


Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world.


Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.


Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simon Bolivar, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison).


List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).


Understand the unique character of the American Revolution, its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing significance to other nations.


Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire.


Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.


Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.


Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.


Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison).


Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.


Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement.


Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy.


Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.


Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in Europe.


Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.


Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonialism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology).


Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.


Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.


Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.


Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.


Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of "total war."


Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, climate).


Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war.


Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial peoples contributed to the war effort.


Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government's actions against Armenian citizens.


Students analyze the effects of the First World War.


Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, the terms and influence of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the United States' rejection of the League of Nations on world politics.


Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties on population movement, the international economy, and shifts in the geographic and political borders of Europe and the Middle East.


Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians.


Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the "lost generation" of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).


Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.


Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin's use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag).


Trace Stalin's rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).


Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.


Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War II.


Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.


Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of World War II.


Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors.


Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).


Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.


Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan.


Students analyze the international developments in the post-World War II world.


Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan.


Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.


Understand the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, which established the pattern for America's postwar policy of supplying economic and military aid to prevent the spread of Communism and the resulting economic and political competition in arenas such as Southeast Asia (i.e., the Korean War, Vietnam War), Cuba, and Africa.


Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).


Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries' resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control.


Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs.


Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the weakness of the command economy, burdens of military commitments, and growing resistance to Soviet rule by dissidents in satellite states and the non-Russian Soviet republics.


Discuss the establishment and work of the United Nations and the purposes and functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, and the Organization of American States.


Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.


Understand the challenges in the regions, including their geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which they are involved.


Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.


Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.


Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy and the information, technological, and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).

Content Standards: U. S. History


Students in grade eleven study the major turning points in American history in the twentieth century. Following a review of the nation's beginnings and the impact of the Enlightenment on U.S. democratic ideals, students build upon the tenth grade study of global industrialization to understand the emergence and impact of new technology and a corporate economy, including the social and cultural effects. They trace the change in the ethnic composition of American society; the movement toward equal rights for racial minorities and women; and the role of the United States as a major world power. An emphasis is placed on the expanding role of the federal government and federal courts as well as the continuing tension between the individual and the state. Students consider the major social problems of our time and trace their causes in historical events. They learn that the United States has served as a model for other nations and that the rights and freedoms we enjoy are not accidents, but the results of a defined set of political principles that are not always basic to citizens of other countries. Students understand that our rights under the U.S. Constitution are a precious inheritance that depends on an educated citizenry for their preservation and protection.
11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.
1.       Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the context in which the nation was founded.
2.       Analyze the ideological origins of the American Revolution, the divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights philosophy of the Founding Fathers, the debates on the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights.
3.       Understand the history of the Constitution after 1787 with emphasis on federal versus state authority and growing democratization.
4.       Examine the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the industrial revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late nineteenth century of the United States as a world power.
11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
1.       Know the effects of industrialization on living and working conditions, including the portrayal of working conditions and food safety in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
2.       Describe the changing landscape, including the growth of cities linked by industry and trade, and the development of cities divided according to race, ethnicity, and class.
3.       Trace the effect of the Americanization movement.
4.       Analyze the effect of urban political machines and responses to them by immigrants and middle-class reformers.
5.       Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartels and the economic and political policies of industrial leaders.
6.       Trace the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography.
7.       Analyze the similarities and differences between the ideologies of Social Darwinism and Social Gospel (e.g., using biographies of William Graham Sumner, Billy Sunday, Dwight L. Moody).
8.       Examine the effect of political programs and activities of Populists.
9.       Understand the effect of political programs and activities of the Progressives (e.g., federal regulation of railroad transport, Children's Bureau, the Sixteenth Amendment, Theodore Roosevelt).
11.3 Students analyze the role religion played in the founding of America, its lasting moral, social, and political impacts, and issues regarding religious liberty.
1.       Describe the contributions of various religious groups to American civic principles and social reform movements (e.g., civil and human rights, individual responsibility and the work ethic, antimonarchy and self-rule, worker protection, family-centered communities).
2.       Analyze the great religious revivals and the leaders involved in them, including the First Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening, the Civil War revivals, the Social Gospel Movement, the rise of Christian liberal theology in the nineteenth century, the impact of the Second Vatican Council, and the rise of Christian fundamentalism in current times.
3.       Cite incidences of religious intolerance in the United States (e.g., persecution of Mormons, anti-Catholic sentiment, anti-Semitism).
4.       Discuss the expanding religious pluralism in the United States and California that resulted from large-scale immigration in the twentieth century.
5.       Describe the principles of religious liberty found in the Establishment and Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment, including the debate on the issue of separation of church and state.
11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the twentieth century.
1.       List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door policy.
2.       Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S. expansion in the South Pacific.
3.       Discuss America's role in the Panama Revolution and the building of the Panama Canal.
4.       Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.
5.       Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of World War I on the home front.
6.       Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the United States in world affairs after World War II.
11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s.
1.       Discuss the policies of Presidents Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.
2.       Analyze the international and domestic events, interests, and philosophies that prompted attacks on civil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, Marcus Garvey's "back-to-Africa" movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and immigration quotas and the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks.
3.       Examine the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act (Prohibition).
4.       Analyze the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment and the changing role of women in society.
5.       Describe the Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature, music, and art, with special attention to the work of writers (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes).
6.       Trace the growth and effects of radio and movies and their role in the worldwide diffusion of popular culture.
7.       Discuss the rise of mass production techniques, the growth of cities, the impact of new technologies (e.g., the automobile, electricity), and the resulting prosperity and effect on the American landscape.
11.6 Students analyze the different explanations for the Great Depression and how the New Deal fundamentally changed the role of the federal government.
1.       Describe the monetary issues of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that gave rise to the establishment of the Federal Reserve and the weaknesses in key sectors of the economy in the late 1920s.
2.       Understand the explanations of the principal causes of the Great Depression and the steps taken by the Federal Reserve, Congress, and Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to combat the economic crisis.
3.       Discuss the human toll of the Depression, natural disasters, and unwise agricultural practices and their effects on the depopulation of rural regions and on political movements of the left and right, with particular attention to the Dust Bowl refugees and their social and economic impacts in California.
4.       Analyze the effects of and the controversies arising from New Deal economic policies and the expanded role of the federal government in society and the economy since the 1930s (e.g., Works Progress Administration, Social Security, National Labor Relations Board, farm programs, regional development policies, and energy development projects such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, California Central Valley Project, and Bonneville Dam).
5.       Trace the advances and retreats of organized labor, from the creation of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations to current issues of a postindustrial, multinational economy, including the United Farm Workers in California.
11.7 Students analyze America's participation in World War II.
1.       Examine the origins of American involvement in the war, with an emphasis on the events that precipitated the attack on Pearl Harbor.
2.       Explain U.S. and Allied wartime strategy, including the major battles of Midway, Normandy, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Battle of the Bulge.
3.       Identify the roles and sacrifices of individual American soldiers, as well as the unique contributions of the special fighting forces (e.g., the Tuskegee Airmen, the 442nd Regimental Combat team, the Navajo Code Talkers).
4.       Analyze Roosevelt's foreign policy during World War II (e.g., Four Freedoms speech).
5.       Discuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler's atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production; and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans.
6.       Describe major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine and the war's impact on the location of American industry and use of resources.
7.       Discuss the decision to drop atomic bombs and the consequences of the decision (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).
8.       Analyze the effect of massive aid given to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan to rebuild itself after the war and the importance of a rebuilt Europe to the U.S. economy.
11.8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II America.
1.       Trace the growth of service sector, white collar, and professional sector jobs in business and government.
2.       Describe the significance of Mexican immigration and its relationship to the agricultural economy, especially in California.
3.       Examine Truman's labor policy and congressional reaction to it.
4.       Analyze new federal government spending on education (including the California Master PLan), defense, welfare, and interest on the national debt.
5.       Describe the increased powers of the presidency in response to the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War.
6.       Discuss the diverse environmental regions of North America, their relationship to local economies, and the origins and prospects of environmental problems in those regions.
7.       Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology.
8.       Discuss forms of popular culture, with emphasis on their origins and geographic diffusion (e.g., jazz and other forms of popular music, professional sports, architectural and artistic styles).
11.9 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II.
1.       Discuss the establishment of the United Nations and International Declaration of Human Rights, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and their importance in shaping modern Europe and maintaining peace and international order.
2.       Understand the role of military alliances, including NATO and SEATO, in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War.
3.       Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold - War and containment policy, including the following:
·         The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting
·         The Truman Doctrine
·         The Berlin Blockade
·         The Korean War
·         The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
·         Atomic testing in the American West, "mutual assured destruction" doctrine, disarmament policies
·         The Vietnam War
·         Latin American policy
1.       List the effects of foreign policy on domestic policies and vice versa (e.g., protests during the war in Vietnam, the "nuclear freeze" movement).
2.       Analyze the role of the Reagan administration and other factors in the victory of the West in the Cold War.
3.       Describe U.S. Middle East policy and its strategic, political, and economic interests, including those related to the Gulf War.
4.       Examine relations between the United States and Mexico in the twentieth century, including key economic, political, immigration, and environmental issues.
11.10 Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and voting rights.
1.       Explain how demands of African Americans helped produce a stimulus for civil rights, including President Roosevelt's ban on racial discrimination in defense industries in 1941, and how African Americans' service in World War II produced a stimulus for President Truman's decision to end segregation in the armed forces in 1948.
2.       Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases in the evolution of civil rights, including Dred Scoff v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, and California Proposition 209.
3.       Describe the collaboration on legal strategy between African American and white civil rights lawyers to end racial segregation in higher education.
4.       Examine the roles of civil rights advocates (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcom X, Thurgood Marshall, James Farmer, Rosa Parks), including the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" and "I Have a Dream" speech.
5.       Discuss the diffusion of the civil rights movement from the churches of the rural South and the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birrningham, and how the advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities.
6.       Analyze the passage and effects of civil rights and voting rights legislation (e.g., 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965) and the Twenty-Fourth Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process.
7.       Analyze the women's rights movement from the era of Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the movement launched in the 1960s, including differing perspectives on the roles of women.
11.11 Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues in contemporary American society.
1.       Discuss the reasons for the nation's changing immigration policy, with emphasis on how the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts have transformed American society.
2.       Discuss the significant domestic policy speeches of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton (e.g., with regard to education, civil rights, economic policy, environmental policy).
3.       Describe the changing roles of women in society as reflected in the entry of more women into the labor force and the changing family structure.
4.       Explain the constitutional crisis originating from the Watergate scandal.
5.       Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated with environmental conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of environmental protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction between environmental protection advocates and property rights advocates.
6.       Analyze the persistence of poverty and how different analyses of this issue influence welfare reform, health insurance reform, and other social policies.
7.       Explain how the federal, state, and local governments have responded to demographic and social changes such as population shifts to the suburbs, racial concentrations in the cities, Frostbelt-to-Sunbelt migration, international migration, decline of family farms, increases in out-of-wedlock births, and drug abuse.

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